Treatment For Early Bowel Cancer Symptoms & Treatments

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Rectal nhatroso.com is a disease in which malignant (nhatroso.com) cells khung in the tissues of the rectum. Health history affects the risk of developing rectal nhatroso.com.Signs of rectal nhatroso.com include a change in bowel habits or blood in the stool.Tests that examine the rectum and colon are used lớn diagnose rectal nhatroso.com.Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

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Rectal nhatroso.com is a disease in which malignant (nhatroso.com) cells form in the tissues of the rectum.

The rectum is part of the body’s digestive system. The digestive system takes in nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, & water) from foods & helps pass waste material out of the body. The digestive system is made up of the esophagus, stomach, & the small & large intestines. The colon (large bowel) is the first part of the large intestine và is about 5 feet long. Together, the rectum and anal canal make up the last part of the large intestine and are 6 lớn 8 inches long. The anal canal ends at the anus (the opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body).Enlarge

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Anatomy of the lower gastrointestinal (digestive) system showing the colon, rectum, và anus. Other organs that cosplay the digestive system are also shown.

For more information about rectal nhatroso.com, see:


Health history affects the risk of developing rectal nhatroso.com.

Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get nhatroso.com; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get nhatroso.com. Talk lớn your doctor if you think you may be at risk for colorectal nhatroso.com.

Risk factors for colorectal nhatroso.com include the following:


Being Black.

Older age is a main risk factor for most nhatroso.coms. The chance of getting nhatroso.com increases as you get older.

Signs of rectal nhatroso.com include a change in bowel habits or blood in the stool.

These và other signs và symptoms may be caused by rectal nhatroso.com or by other conditions. Kiểm tra with your doctor if you have any of the following:


A change in bowel habits.
Feeling that the bowel does not empty completely.Stools that are narrower or have a different shape than usual.
Weight loss for no known reason.Feeling very tired.

Tests that examine the rectum và colon are used khổng lồ diagnose rectal nhatroso.com.

The following tests & procedures may be used:


Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) & treatment options.

The prognosis & treatment options depend on the following:


Whether the nhatroso.com is related lớn a defect in genes involved in DNA repair.Whether the tumor has spread into or through the bowel wall.Where the nhatroso.com is found in the rectum.Whether the bowel is blocked or has a hole in it. The patient’s general health.

Stages of Rectal nhatroso.com


Key Points


After rectal nhatroso.com has been diagnosed, tests are done lớn find out if nhatroso.com cells have spread within the rectum or to other parts of the body.There are three ways that nhatroso.com spreads in the body.nhatroso.com may spread from where it began to other parts of the body. The following stages are used for rectal nhatroso.com:Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Stage I Stage IIStage IIIStage IVRectal nhatroso.com can recur (come back) after it has been treated.

After rectal nhatroso.com has been diagnosed, tests are done khổng lồ find out if nhatroso.com cells have spread within the rectum or khổng lồ other parts of the body.

The process used to find out whether nhatroso.com has spread within the rectum or lớn other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important lớn know the stage in order to lớn plan treatment.

The following tests & procedures may be used in the staging process:


There are three ways that nhatroso.com spreads in the body.

nhatroso.com can spread through tissue, the lymph system, và the blood:


Tissue. The nhatroso.com spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.

nhatroso.com may spread from where it began lớn other parts of the body.

When nhatroso.com spreads khổng lồ another part of the body, it is called metastasis. nhatroso.com cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.


Blood. The nhatroso.com gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, & forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

The metastatic tumor is the same type of nhatroso.com as the primary tumor. For example, if rectal nhatroso.com spreads khổng lồ the lung, the nhatroso.com cells in the lung are actually rectal nhatroso.com cells. The disease is metastatic rectal nhatroso.com, not lung nhatroso.com.


Many nhatroso.com deaths are caused when nhatroso.com moves from the original tumor và spreads khổng lồ other tissues and organs. This is called metastatic nhatroso.com. This animation shows how nhatroso.com cells travel from the place in the toàn thân where they first formed khổng lồ other parts of the body.

The following stages are used for rectal nhatroso.com:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Enlarge
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Stage 0 (rectal carcinoma in situ). Abnormal cells are shown in the mucosa of the rectum wall.

In stage 0 rectal nhatroso.com, abnormal cells are found in the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall. These abnormal cells may become nhatroso.com and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I Enlarge
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Stage I rectal nhatroso.com. nhatroso.com has spread from the mucosa of the rectum wall to the submucosa or khổng lồ the muscle layer.

In stage I rectal nhatroso.com, nhatroso.com has formed in the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall and has spread khổng lồ the submucosa (layer of tissue next khổng lồ the mucosa) or to lớn the muscle layer of the rectum wall.

Stage IIEnlarge
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Stage II rectal nhatroso.com. In stage IIA, nhatroso.com has spread through the muscle layer of the rectum wall lớn the serosa. In stage IIB, nhatroso.com has spread through the serosa but has not spread to lớn nearby organs. In stage IIC, nhatroso.com has spread through the serosa lớn nearby organs.

Stage II rectal nhatroso.com is divided into stages IIA, IIB, & IIC.


Stage III

Stage III rectal nhatroso.com is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, và IIIC.

Enlarge
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Stage IIIA rectal nhatroso.com. nhatroso.com has spread through the mucosa of the rectum wall khổng lồ the submucosa và may have spread khổng lồ the muscle layer, và has spread lớn one to lớn three nearby lymph nodes or tissues near the lymph nodes. OR, nhatroso.com has spread through the mucosa to the submucosa và four khổng lồ six nearby lymph nodes.

In stage IIIA, nhatroso.com has spread:


through the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall to lớn the submucosa (layer of tissue next to lớn the mucosa). nhatroso.com has spread to lớn four to six nearby lymph nodes.
Enlarge
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Stage IIIB rectal nhatroso.com. nhatroso.com has spread through the muscle layer of the rectum wall to lớn the serosa or has spread through the serosa but not khổng lồ nearby organs; nhatroso.com has spread to one to lớn three nearby lymph nodes or to tissues near the lymph nodes. OR, nhatroso.com has spread to lớn the muscle layer or khổng lồ the serosa, and to four khổng lồ six nearby lymph nodes. OR, nhatroso.com has spread through the mucosa to the submucosa and may have spread khổng lồ the muscle layer; nhatroso.com has spread to seven or more nearby lymph nodes.

In stage IIIB, nhatroso.com has spread:


to the muscle layer or to lớn the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall. nhatroso.com has spread to four to six nearby lymph nodes; or
Enlarge
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Stage IIIC rectal nhatroso.com. nhatroso.com has spread through the serosa of the rectum wall but not to nearby organs; nhatroso.com has spread to four to lớn six nearby lymph nodes. OR, nhatroso.com has spread through the muscle layer to the serosa or has spread through the serosa but not to lớn nearby organs; nhatroso.com has spread khổng lồ seven or more nearby lymph nodes. OR, nhatroso.com has spread through the serosa khổng lồ nearby organs và to one or more nearby lymph nodes or lớn tissues near the lymph nodes.

In stage IIIC, nhatroso.com has spread:


Stage IV

Stage IV rectal nhatroso.com is divided into stages IVA, IVB, và IVC.

Enlarge
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Stage IV rectal nhatroso.com. The nhatroso.com has spread through the blood and lymph nodes khổng lồ other parts of the body, such as the lung, liver, abdominal wall, or prostate.

Rectal nhatroso.com can recur (come back) after it has been treated.

The nhatroso.com may come back in therectum or in other parts of thebody, such as the colon,pelvis, liver, or lungs.


Treatment Option Overview


Key Points


There are different types of treatment for patients with rectal nhatroso.com.The following types of treatment are used:SurgeryRadiation therapyChemotherapyActive surveillanceTargeted therapyImmunotherapyOther types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.Treatment for rectal nhatroso.com may cause side effects.Patients may want khổng lồ think about taking part in a clinical trial.Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their nhatroso.com treatment.Follow-up tests may be needed.

There are different types of treatment for patients with rectal nhatroso.com.

Different types of treatment are available for patients with rectal nhatroso.com. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with nhatroso.com. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want khổng lồ think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to lớn patients who have not started treatment.

The following types of treatment are used:

Surgery

Surgery is the most common treatment for all stages of rectal nhatroso.com. The nhatroso.com is removed using one of the following types of surgery:


After the nhatroso.com is removed, the surgeon will either:


Radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may be given before surgery to shrink the tumor, make it easier lớn remove the nhatroso.com, & help with bowel control after surgery. Treatment given before surgery is called neoadjuvant therapy. After all the nhatroso.com that can be seen at the time of the surgery is removed, some patients may be given radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy after surgery to kill any nhatroso.com cells that are left. Treatment given after the surgery, khổng lồ lower the risk that the nhatroso.com will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a nhatroso.com treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill nhatroso.com cells or keep them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body toàn thân to send radiation toward the nhatroso.com.

Short-course preoperative radiation therapy is used in some types of rectal nhatroso.com. This treatment uses fewer and lower doses of radiation than standard treatment, followed by surgery several days after the last dose.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a nhatroso.com treatment that uses drugs lớn stop the growth of nhatroso.com cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach nhatroso.com cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly in the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect nhatroso.com cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy).

Chemoembolization of the hepatic artery is a type of regional chemotherapy that may be used to lớn treat nhatroso.com that has spread to the liver. This is done by blocking the hepatic artery (the main artery that supplies blood khổng lồ the liver) and injecting antinhatroso.com drugs between the blockage & the liver. The liver’s arteries then carry the drugs into the liver. Only a small amount of the drug reaches other parts of the body. The blockage may be temporary or permanent, depending on what is used to lớn block the artery. The liver continues to lớn receive some blood from the hepatic portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach & intestine.

The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type và stage of the nhatroso.com being treated.

For more information, see Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal nhatroso.com.

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Active surveillance

Active surveillance is closely following a patient"s condition without giving any treatment unless there are changes in demo results. It is used khổng lồ find early signs that the condition is getting worse. In active surveillance, patients are given certain exams and tests to kiểm tra if the nhatroso.com is growing. When the nhatroso.com begins lớn grow, treatment is given to cure the nhatroso.com. Tests include the following:


Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to lớn identify and attack specific nhatroso.com cells. Targeted therapies usually cause less harm khổng lồ normal cells than chemotherapy or radiation therapy do.

Types of targeted therapies used in the treatment of rectal nhatroso.com include the following:


Monoclonal antibodies: Monoclonal antibodies are immune system proteins made in the laboratory khổng lồ treat many diseases, including nhatroso.com. As a nhatroso.com treatment, these antibodies can attach khổng lồ a specific target on nhatroso.com cells or other cells that may help nhatroso.com cells grow. The antibodies are able to lớn then kill the nhatroso.com cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to lớn carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly khổng lồ nhatroso.com cells.

There are different types of monoclonal antibody therapy:


For more information, see Drugs Approved for Colon và Rectal nhatroso.com.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the patient"s immune system khổng lồ fight nhatroso.com. Substances made by the toàn thân or made in a laboratory are used khổng lồ boost, direct, or restore the body"s natural defenses against nhatroso.com. This nhatroso.com treatment is a type of biologic therapy.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: Immune checkpoint inhibitors block proteins called checkpoints that are made by some types of immune system cells, such as T cells, & some nhatroso.com cells. These checkpoints help keep immune responses from being too strong & sometimes can keep T cells from killing nhatroso.com cells. When these checkpoints are blocked, T cells can kill nhatroso.com cells better. They are used to treat some patients with metastatic colorectal nhatroso.com.

There are two types of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy:


Enlarge
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Immune checkpoint inhibitor. Checkpoint proteins, such as PD-L1 on tumor cells và PD-1 on T cells, help keep immune responses in check. The binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 keeps T cells from killing tumor cells in the body toàn thân (left panel). Blocking the binding of PD-L1 lớn PD-1 with an immune checkpoint inhibitor (anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-1) allows the T cells to kill tumor cells (right panel).
Immunotherapy uses the body’s immune system lớn fight nhatroso.com. This animation explains one type of immunotherapy that uses immune checkpoint inhibitors lớn treat nhatroso.com.

For more information, see Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal nhatroso.com.

Other types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.

Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Treatment for rectal nhatroso.com may cause side effects.

For information about side effects caused by treatment for nhatroso.com, see our Side Effects page.

Patients may want to lớn think about taking part in a clinical trial.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the nhatroso.com research process. Clinical trials are done to lớn find out if new nhatroso.com treatments are safe & effective or better than the standard treatment.

Many of today"s standard treatments for nhatroso.com are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first lớn receive a new treatment.

Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way nhatroso.com will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials vày not lead khổng lồ effective new treatments, they often answer important questions và help move research forward.

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their nhatroso.com treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials chạy thử treatments for patients whose nhatroso.com has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways khổng lồ stop nhatroso.com from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of nhatroso.com treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about clinical trials supported by NCI can be found on NCI’s clinical trials tìm kiếm webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website.

Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done lớn diagnose the nhatroso.com or to find out the stage of the nhatroso.com may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order lớn see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether lớn continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.

Some of the tests will continue lớn be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the nhatroso.com has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

After treatment for rectal nhatroso.com, a blood demo to measure amounts ofcarcinoembryonic antigen (asubstance in the blood that may be increased when nhatroso.com is present) may bedone khổng lồ see if the nhatroso.com has come back.


For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage 0 may include the following:


Use our clinical trial tìm kiếm to find NCI-supported nhatroso.com clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can tìm kiếm for trials based on the type of nhatroso.com, the age of the patient, & where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.


For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage I rectal nhatroso.com may include the following:


Use our clinical trial tìm kiếm to find NCI-supported nhatroso.com clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of nhatroso.com, the age of the patient, & where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.


For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage II & stage III rectal nhatroso.com may include the following:


Short-course radiation therapy followed by surgery và chemotherapy.Surgery followed by chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy.Surgery.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported nhatroso.com clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can tìm kiếm for trials based on the type of nhatroso.com, the age of the patient, & where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.


For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage IV và recurrent rectal nhatroso.com may include the following:


Surgery lớn remove the tumor. Chemotherapy may be given before surgery, khổng lồ shrink the tumor.A clinical trial of chemoembolization combined with radiation therapy to lớn the tumors in the liver.

Use our clinical trial tìm kiếm to find NCI-supported nhatroso.com clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of nhatroso.com, the age of the patient, & where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.


For general nhatroso.com information & other resources from the National nhatroso.com Institute, see the following:


About PDQ

Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National nhatroso.com Institute"s (NCI"s) comprehensive nhatroso.com information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on nhatroso.com prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have nhatroso.com information that is accurate and up to lớn date và most versions are also available in Spanish.

PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent reviews of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.

Purpose of This Summary

This PDQ nhatroso.com information summary has current information about the treatment of rectal nhatroso.com. It is meant lớn inform and help patients, families, và caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.

Reviewers and Updates

Editorial Boards write the PDQ nhatroso.com information summaries and keep them up khổng lồ date. These Boards are made up of experts in nhatroso.com treatment and other specialties related to lớn nhatroso.com. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary ("Updated") is the date of the most recent change.

The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly và updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board.

Clinical Trial Information

A clinical trial is a study lớn answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies và what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to lớn find new and better ways lớn help nhatroso.com patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to lớn think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are mở cửa only to patients who have not started treatment.

Clinical trials can be found online at NCI"s website. For more information, call the nhatroso.com Information Service (CIS), NCI"s contact center, at 1-800-4-nhatroso.com (1-800-422-6237).

Permission lớn Use This Summary

PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ nhatroso.com information summary unless the whole summary is shown & it is updated regularly. However, a user would be allowed to lớn write a sentence such as “NCI’s PDQ nhatroso.com information summary about breast nhatroso.com prevention states the risks in the following way: .”

The best way lớn cite this PDQ summary is:

PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Rectal nhatroso.com Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National nhatroso.com Institute. Updated . Available at: https://www.nhatroso.com/types/colorectal/patient/rectal-treatment-pdq. Accessed .

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