Catch unwanted pests: 3 diy bug traps for mosquitos, flies and more

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Many types of traps can be used khổng lồ monitor or control insects or other arthropods that become problematic in the human environment (Table 1). Traps to lớn capture insects vary greatly, depending on the target, location, & purpose. Traps may be simple interception devices that passively capture insects, contain lures or baits, or have specific designs và colors to attract a particular type of pest. Traps may be inexpensive and disposable, or more complex. Some kinds of traps require periodic servicing to lớn maintain their effectiveness.

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Here, we review traps for commonly encountered pests in the home, garden, and landscape. We focus on traps that can be made using common household materials or that are readily available through home garden centers or Do-It-Yourself pest-control stores. We caution that the effectiveness of insect traps depends on site conditions và pest infestation level: not all traps will work in all cases.

A complete listing of insect traps is beyond the scope of this article, và we vì not provide specific information for professional pest management purposes. Commercial insect traps can be obtained through vendors lượt thích BioQuip (http://www.bioquip.com), Trécé (www.trece.com), Great Lakes IPM (www.greatlakesipm.com), & Suterra (http://suterra.com).

Household Pests

Various insects occur in and around the home or workplace, including food preparation areas, waste disposal locations, drains, and sleeping areas. Others are associated with pets or livestock. Several different traps can be made or purchased for household pests, depending on the target. Trapping alone may not solve persistent infestations, and the source of the problem (such as exposed food, moisture, or other variables) should be addressed.


Table 1. 

Common DIY trap types và pests captured.


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Flies

Flypaper (or fly ribbon) attracts many different flies to sticky adhesive, where they are permanently trapped. Commercial versions may contain sweetly fragrant additives that attract flies or other flying insects, và some contain an insecticide that kills trapped insects. A DIY flypaper can be made from strips cut from a thin plastic material (such as grocery bag) covered with a viscous honey or sugar solution. Once dried, the sticky strips can be hung up in locations where flies are most active.


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Figure 1.  Fly paper or ribbon. Credit: Sergei Frolov, Wikipedia commons

A simple inexpensive bottle funnel trap can be made using an empty plastic drinking container. The đứng đầu is cut just below the neck, inverted into the body toàn thân as a funnel, and attached with tape or glue. Small holes cut in the side allow the trap khổng lồ be hung up. The trap can be baited with various foods or other attractants & placed indoors or outdoors in locations where flies are active. Houseflies (Musca domestica) are effectively baited with sugary liquids such as sugar syrup or honey water. Protein baits (such as meat) are attractive to lớn blow or carrion flies such as bottle flies (Calliphoridae), while fermenting materials (ripe fruits, cider vinegar, beer or wine) attract fruit flies (Tephritidae) as well as wasps. Water containing a drop of liquid detergent or oil to lớn reduce surface tension can be added lớn drown caught flies. Small flies, such as fruit flies, can be trapped or monitored with a jar or cup baited with táo bị cắn dở cider vinegar & a drop of soap. The container is covered with plastic food wrap sealed with a rubber band và holes poked in the đứng top allow odor lớn escape và flies khổng lồ enter. Commercial fly traps come in various forms including cups & disposable bags và include dissolvable baits that are mixed to khung a drowning solution.


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Figure 2.  Bottle trap for flies, wasps và other insects. Credit: Adrian Hunsberger, University of Florida

 

Bed Bugs

Bed bugs are found around furniture where people sit or lie, such as beds, chairs, and sofas. Since professional treatment is expensive, confirming a bed bug infestation is valuable. A homemade CO2 trap takes advantage of these insects' attraction lớn carbon dioxide (CO2). A thermos flask containing dry ice (see Yellow Pages for suppliers) or a bottle containing a solution of yeast, sugar, và water releases a steady stream of CO2. For the latter, mix ¼ cup sugar and 1 gram brewer's yeast per cup of non-chlorinated or pre-boiled water. After a few hours, a steady stream of CO2 will be released through the funnel. Because CO2 is heavier than air, it concentrates at the base of the trap near the floor. Put the container on đứng top of an inverted plastic pet dish or similar container. Cover the outer sides of the dish in fabric or masking tape to lớn allow approaching bed bugs to climb inside but leave the inside surface clean so that the bugs cannot escape. A thin dusting of talcum powder placed inside the dish ensures trapped bed bugs cannot escape. Traps should be phối at night individually near the bed or suspected infestation area. The CO2 sources are temporary và will need to lớn be replaced for each subsequent monitoring period.


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Figure 3.  Bed bug trap with dry ice lure. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

University of Florida scientists have also developed a simple trap that does not require a CO2 lure. The trap collects bed bugs as they travel between their human hosts & their hiding places. These traps use two different-sized smooth-sided containers (one inside the other) that are placed under the legs of beds & other furniture. Masking tape placed on the outermost và innermost sides of the large and small containers, respectively, will enable approaching bed bugs to lớn enter either container—but not to lớn exit back khổng lồ the room. Oto polish or a thin layer of talcum powder applied lớn the interior side of the larger và exterior side of the smaller container will ensure trapped bed bugs cannot escape.


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Figure 4.  Bed bug interceptor trap. Credit: Benjamin A. Hottel, University of Florida

 

Cockroaches và Silverfish

Glue-boards or sticky cards strategically placed in the corners of floors, & shelves, under cabinets, or in other places where cockroaches và silverfish congregate, provide an alternative to lớn using poisons và baits for these pests. A DIY sticky card for small cockroaches can be made from duct tape placed sticky side up on a piece of thẻ or cardboard (4" by 6") & taped lớn the bottom or simply folded over at each edge & stuck lớn the floor. Baits, such as peanut butter, placed in the middle of the sticky thẻ enhance these traps' attractiveness khổng lồ cockroaches. Some commercial sticky traps also contain a pheromone that is claimed to attract cockroaches. A DIY poison-bait station for cockroaches can be made using powdered boric acid (or Borax) liberally mixed with slightly melted peanut butter. The bait can be applied in bottle caps or shallow container lids indoors or outdoors where infestations occur.


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Figure 5.  Glue trap made from duct tape with peanut butter bait. Credit: Ken Brown, KenuHawaii

 

Ants

A poison bait station for ants can be made by mixing boric acid, with sugar water or honey in a 2% concentration. The bait is placed in shallow container lids where ants are foraging. Any foraging ants should be allowed khổng lồ carry food back to lớn their nest, where the queen will eventually be killed. Not all species of ants are susceptible; in general, smaller species that are attracted khổng lồ sugars will be most vulnerable. Place traps in a safe place away from access because boric acid is toxic và can cause serious illness khổng lồ pets & children if ingested.


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Figure 6.  A poison ant bait station containing sugar và boric acid. Credit: Stacy Makes Cents

 

Pantry Pests

Several moths & beetles, such as Indian meal moths và cigarette beetles, infest nuts và grain products including cereals, flour, and pasta in homes & other food storage locations. Sanitation, including cleaning up spills, & sealing stored foods in insect-proof containers will help prevent pantry pest problems. Where problems occur, a DIY pantry pest bait station may help. Mix cornmeal with boric acid (or Borax) và put it in jar lids to help eliminate a residual infestation of many stored hàng hóa pests. Put the traps in the pantry và cupboards khổng lồ attract remaining larvae. Additional boric acid or diatomaceous earth may be placed in cracks và corners of cabinets & cupboards lớn kill these pests, which can be removed later by vacuuming the residue.


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Figure 7.  Shallow lid containing corn meal và boric acid for pantry pests. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

Commercial "pantry pest" traps employ a sex-pheromone that lures the adult stages of the insect (normally the male) to lớn a sticky thẻ that can be hung near a suspected infestation. Most traps contain a lure attractive to lớn multiple pantry-pest species. The traps must be placed strategically because too many of them in a confined area may confuse moths và make the traps less effective. Similar pheromone traps are available for clothes moths.


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Figure 8.  Sticky trap containing pheromone that has attracted Indian meal moths. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

 

Fleas

Fleas will gravitate towards sources of warmth và light. A DIY flea trap can be made with a light source (such as a bedside lamp) shining directly over a shallow, light-colored dish containing soapy water. An incandescent or heat-generating light bulb may work best. A tea light candle floated in the dish may also work và may be preferable because it eliminates the risk of mixing electricity and water. Adult fleas are highly mobile & are attracted khổng lồ the traps while foraging at night. They quickly drown in the soapy water.

Stinkbugs

Some stinkbugs, such as the brown marmorated stinkbug (BMSB), enter homes or other structures in high numbers. The BMSB is attracted to light sources & can be caught at night with a light source directed at a reflective pan of water similar khổng lồ the flea trap; although being a larger insect, the stinkbug may require deeper water than does the flea. A recent citizen science study concluded that an aluminum foil water pan trap was the most effective trap tested for collecting BMSB.


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Figure 9.  Illuminated pan traps will attract fleas. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

 

Biting/Stinging Pests

Mosquitoes and No-See-Ums

Mosquitoes and no-se-ums are highly attracted lớn CO2. Using this principle, the plastic bottle funnel trap described earlier can be baited with a sugar solution (non-chlorinated or pre-boiled water) và brewer's yeast (1 cup water, ¼ cup sugar và 1 gram yeast per 2-liter bottle). After a few hours, a steady stream of CO2 will be released through the funnel. Whenever the mixture stops bubbling, địa chỉ cửa hàng fresh yeast and sugar khổng lồ maintain the stream of CO2 & the effectiveness of the trap. Because mosquitoes are attracted to lớn dark colors, adding black tape or painting the outside of the bottle đen may increase its effectiveness. Traps can be used indoors or hung in places where the mosquitoes are biting.

Wasps

Social wasps including yellow jackets, hornets and paper wasps are common stinging insects that can be a nuisance when foraging near garbage cans or building nests (which they will defend) close khổng lồ human activities. The plastic bottle funnel trap can be used as a simple DIY trap. Adding petroleum jelly or cooking oil along the inside edges of the funnel can cause wasps to lớn slip inside the trap. Preferred baits vary according to the season & wasp species. In general protein baits (e.g. Hamburger) work best in the spring when wasps are building their colonies while carbohydrate baits (e.g. Fermenting fruits or beer) may be more effective in the late summer & fall. Do not use honey because it may attract honeybees. Hang traps about 4 to lớn 5 feet above the ground. For safety, place them away from sites of human activity.


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Figure 10.  Fermenting fruit juices will attract stinging wasps in the bottle trap. Credit: Alison Zulyniak

 

Deer Flies, Yellow Flies, và Horse Flies


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Figure 11.  Trolling deer fly trap attached khổng lồ lawnmower. Credit: Russ Mizell, University of Florida

 

Garden Pests

Many insects attack flowers, fruits, vegetables, & turf. Populations of these garden pests may not be readily detected until they reach damaging levels, due to lớn the insects' small size, cryptic habits, or nocturnal habits. Fortunately, several traps & monitoring devices can help alert gardeners to their presence, allowing appropriate control measures to be taken if needed.

Aphids, Thrips, Whiteflies, Leafminers

Yellow, blue, or trắng sticky traps are the simplest và most inexpensive tool for monitoring aphids, thrips, whiteflies, leafminers, and many other small flying insects that infest flower or vegetable gardens. Insect sticky traps are available through many garden outlets, although homemade versions can be made from plastic plates or cups thinly covered with petroleum jelly, Vaseline, or non-toxic sticky insect barrier available in garden stores. Traps can be attached lớn bamboo canes & placed at windward edges near the plant canopy and inspected frequently during the growing season. Traps should be replaced once the sticky material becomes contaminated. In greenhouses, sticky traps should be placed near doors, vents, or other areas where pests may first gain entry.


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Figure 12.  Disposable plastic plate covered with petroleum jelly for trapping thrips. Credit: Adrian Hunsberger, University of Florida

Sticky plant barrier traps may also be used where ants are found "herding" aphids, soft scales, or other honeydew secreting insects. Ants tending these plant-feeding insects protect them from natural enemies, resulting in dramatically increased pest infestations. In cases where ants are observed interacting with aphids and feeding on their honeydew, a sticky barrier of petroleum jelly placed around the bases or stems of infested plants will trap and deter ants và thus allow natural control methods to lớn become reestablished.


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Figure 13.  Plant barrier traps prevent ants that farm honeydew-producing insects. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

 

Fruit Flies

Disposable cups baited with táo bị cắn cider vinegar are highly attractive fruit fly traps in homes, gardens, & orchards. Poke small holes in the cup to lớn allow flies inside. Fruit flies that enter the trap quickly drown in the vinegar. Hang cups wherever fruit fly infestations occur or as a pest-monitoring tool in orchards.

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Figure 14.  Fruit fly trap baited with vinegar. Credit: Hannah Burrack, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org

 

Slugs và Snails

Pitfall traps can be used khổng lồ protect seedlings, vegetables, and other susceptible garden plants from slugs & snails. The presence of slime trails in the ground may indicate the need for traps và the best location to lớn place traps. An empty jar or plastic container buried in the soil and half-filled with beer (or baking yeast & sugar solution) attracts and drowns the mollusks as they forage nocturnally. Place a pitfall trap with the top slightly elevated from the ground surface khổng lồ reduce the risk of collecting ground beetles, spiders, or other beneficial predators. A raised cover over the trap will reduce evaporation or dilution from rainfall or irrigation. Some commercial versions of these pitfall traps have an inner container with a small hole that can be used lớn remove trap contents without needing khổng lồ refill.


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Figure 15.  Pitfall trap for slugs and snails made from two plastic bottle halves. Credit: Andrew Stansfields

An old wooden board or pallet slightly raised from the ground serves as a daytime resting place for slugs và snails & other pests such as earwigs. Check board traps during the day và eliminate pests by knocking them into a jar of soapy water. Board traps may also harbor ground beetles and other beneficial insects that eat mollusks, và these should therefore not be removed.


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Figure 16.  Snails hiding under raised board trap. Credit: Jack Kelly Clark, used with permission from University of California Statewide IPM Program (www.ipm.ucdavis.edu)

 

Cutworms

The larvae of some noctuid moths chew through the stems of young plants, killing them. These "cutworms" typically hide in the ground during the day and are easy to overlook. Vulnerable seedlings can be protected with a section of cardboard tube placed around the stem và pushed a few inches into the ground. These "cutworm collars" can be made from used toilet paper rolls, which will naturally decompose after a few weeks, when the plants will be less susceptible to damage.


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Figure 17.  Cutworm collars made from nhà wc paper rolls help protect vulnerable seedlings. Credit: Hilary Dahl, Seattle Urban Farm Company

 

Landscape Pests

Pests of ornamental trees & shrubs may become problematic for homeowners, as well as growers và landscapers charged with their care. The location & abundance of some of these pests can be monitored with simple DIY traps. The strategic use of traps for landscape pests may help manage pests or assist in performing further control operations should they be needed, such as the application of insecticides.

Tree-Feeding Caterpillars

Tent-making and other gregarious caterpillars can defoliate trees causing aesthetic, although rarely permanent, damage. Many of these caterpillars migrate up và down the trunk khổng lồ hide from predators during the day, especially when they are large & most mobile. Burlap or cloth tree band traps tied around the trunk at chest height effectively trap these caterpillars as they seek hiding places. The fabric can be folded over khổng lồ create a "skirt," which provides additional hiding spaces. The bands can be replaced or reused after caterpillars are removed và placed in a bucket of soapy water to lớn kill them. Wear gloves when handling caterpillars because some of them have irritating or urticating hairs or bristles.


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Figure 18.  Tree band trap made with a towel fastened with string in a skirt can be used lớn collect tree-feeding caterpillars. Credit: Adrian Hunsberger, University of Florida

 

Scale Insects và Mealybugs

Insects of the superfamily Coccoidea are a diverse group of small to medium-sized insects that infest many woody ornamental plants found in the landscape. Scales are often overlooked as insects since they grow beneath wax covers (scales) or are covered with mealy wax (mealybugs). The primary mobile stage is the first crawler stage, which is also the most susceptible lớn insecticides. Double-sided sticky tape (available in stationary stores) can be used as a simple monitoring device to determine crawler activity. To lớn make tape traps, the tape is wrapped around twigs or small branches và doubled over to make a handle to lớn unwind. Crawlers get stuck on the tape as they migrate to lớn new spring growth in search of feeding sites, appearing as yellow or orange specks. Examine the traps with a hand lens to identify crawlers. Placing 2 or 3 traps per tree in locations in the early spring will help determine the need & timing for liên hệ insecticides, such as horticultural oils. A variation is the sail trap, which can be used to lớn catch the gnat-like adult male scales and parasitoids of the scale.


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Figure 19.  Tape trap for monitoring scale và mealybug crawlers. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

 

Tree Boring Beetles

Bark và ambrosia beetles are important pests of trees in forests, nurseries, & urban landscapes. Small-diameter trees that are stressed are most susceptible to lớn attack. Symptoms include wilted foliage và strands of boring dust protruding from small, round holes. Ambrosia beetles can be easily monitored with ethanol traps made from plastic cups or inverted soda bottles containing soapy water & baited with ethyl alcohol (ethanol) released via a cotton wick. Alternatively liquid hand sanitizer containing at least 65% ethanol can be dispensed directly into the bottom of the trap. Traps should have a strategically cut window in the side to allow entrance of flying beetles, which drown in the soapy water or liquid hand sanitizer. Traps should be hung from a branch or attached khổng lồ a stake in the afternoon when temperatures are above 70°F and checked the next day. A citizen science bark beetle project shows how to make ethanol traps and get bark beetles identified.


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Figure 20.  Bark and ambrosia beetle ethanol trap made from soda bottle with a large "window" và hand sanitizer. Credit: Adrian Hunsberger, University of Florida

 

Street Tree Aphids

Aphids sometimes build up large numbers on tall trees in the landscape. The resulting dripping honeydew và associated sooty molds can foul pavements & parked cars below. If insecticides are to lớn be used, water-sensitive paper can be used as a simple indirect monitoring device khổng lồ determine the activity of these aphids (via dripping honeydew) và help time applications. The water-sensitive paper should be suspended horizontally below main branches of the tree where aphids are active. A threshold of 1 to 2 drops per cm/4 hours has been recommended as a threshold for trunk injections.

Palm và Banana Weevils

The giant palm weevil or palmetto weevil (Rhynchoporus cruentatus) attacks palms, including the sabal, coconut, & date palms, in Florida & elsewhere. The silky cane weevil (Metamasius hemipterus sericeus) attacks banana, Musa spp., palms, và sugarcane. Stressed, damaged, và recently transplanted trees or plants are the most susceptible. These pests are very destructive since an infestation is rarely found at the early stage và severely infested trees are difficult khổng lồ treat. đen 5-gallon bucket traps baited with palm stem tissue, sugarcane (cut into 2- khổng lồ 4-inch pieces), or pineapple are used khổng lồ attract weevils. Baffles constructed from 5-cm-long PVC glued together longitudinally và placed over bucket openings effectively prevent weevils from escaping. Small draining holes should be added khổng lồ the buckets. Traps should be secured with rebar or stakes. Hardware cloth (heavy wire screening) can be used to protect the bait from animals (especially raccoons). Traps should be situated away from susceptible trees. Traps can be synergized by using the synthesized & commercially available male-produced aggregation pheromones of these weevils (http://www.chemtica.com/site/?p=1766; http://www.chemtica.com/site/?p=2953) as well as the wounded plant kairomone, ethyl acetate (http://www.chemtica.com/site/?p=1774).


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Figure 21.  Bucket trap used lớn capture palmetto weevils. Credit: Robin M. Giblin-Davis, University of Florida

 

May/June Beetles

The larvae of beetles in the family Scarabaeidae (scarabs) are pests of turf & ornamental plants. Root feeding by the larvae can cause significant decline in lawns while the adult stage of some species feed on trees and shrubs. Day-flying scarabs like the green June beetle, flower beetles, and Japanese beetles can be caught in a DIY food-bait scarab trap. The trap consists of a one-gallon milk jug or similar container, with large windows cut in the side. The lid or cap should not be removed. The trap is baited with fermenting foods, such as beer and an over-ripe banana placed inside a smaller container. Beetles attracted to the baits enter the trap, where they drown in soapy water. The traps should be hung from tree branches or fence posts & checked weekly, with the bait refreshed at least monthly. Night-active May/June beetles are attracted lớn light-colored objects. A white bucket scarab trap containing soapy water can be placed under trees or shrubs where feeding damage is observed. Commercial pheromone traps are available for the adult stages of some scarabs.


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Figure 22.  A food bait trap made from a milk jug (top) và white bucket (bottom) with soapy water can be used lớn trap day- and night-active scarabs, respectively. Credit: Robert Leckel, Adrian Hunsberger, University of Florida

 

Japanese Beetle

The Japanese beetle is a common pest throughout much of the eastern United States (excluding Florida). In addition to turf damage, the adult stage feeds on many landscape plants. Commercial traps which intercept flying beetles into a disposable bag or container are widely available in garden stores. A funnel placed in a hole in the lid of a bucket is a homemade variation of this trap, although the specific dual activity lure needs to lớn be purchased separately. Since research suggests that Japanese beetle traps may attract more beetles than are caught, these traps should be placed away from susceptible plants.


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Figure 23.  Commercial Japanese beetle trap (top) và DIY version below (lures not shown). Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

 

Chinch Bugs

The southern chinch bug is a damaging pest of St. Augustinegrass và other warm-season grasses in Florida & elsewhere. Since they are small and hard lớn see, they may be trapped using the floatation method. The trap consists of an empty metal food can with the bottom removed. To kiểm tra for chinch bug presence, the can is inserted into the soil on the perimeter of damaged turf, where active feeding is anticipated. A knife may be used lớn cut a groove in the soil for the can. Adding water for several minutes will cause any chinch bugs to lớn float lớn the surface where they can be easily observed & counted. This method should be repeated in several locations lớn ensure proper diagnosis.


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Figure 24.  Flotation method khổng lồ monitor chinch bugs in turf. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

 

Night-Flying Insects

Light-trapping is a general term for attracting và capturing nocturnal insects with lamps, especially those that emit light in the ultraviolet range, e.g. Mercury vapor lamps, đen light lamps, or fluorescent tubes. A simple light trap can be made from a funnel, a round bucket, và a light. The funnel is placed in the container & the light source suspended above. Insects attracted khổng lồ the light fall through the funnel và are trapped. Newspaper strips, egg boxes, or similar materials provide a hiding place for trapped insects. Hanging a đen light adjacent lớn a vertically suspended trắng sheet outdoors is an excellent way to observe large numbers of nocturnal insects, including moths và beetles. In addition to the need for a nguồn source, the main disadvantage of light traps is their rather indiscriminate nature. They catch many different types of insects without necessarily controlling any specific one.


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Figure 25.  Homemade light trap for collecting insects. Credit: Robert Leckel, University of Florida

 

Conclusions

Many different insect traps can be made using household materials. These traps may be as effective as those obtained through garden retail outlets, Do-It-Yourself pest control outlets, or internet stores. Many cooperative Extension articles, gardening blogs, và YouTube videos are a valuable resource to show how insect traps can be made and used. We caution that while traps can be useful to determine the presence of many pests, traps by themselves may be insufficient khổng lồ manage persistent pest infestations. In such cases, supplemental control methods & consultation with an Extension specialist or professional pest control company is recommended.

Further Reading

Aigner, J. D., & T. P. Kuhar. 2014. "Using citizen scientists khổng lồ evaluate light traps for catching brown marmorated stink bugs in homes in Virginia." Journal of Extension 52(4): Article # 4RIB5

Dreistadt, S. H., and M. L. Flint. 1995. "Landscape pest monitoring methods & training managers khổng lồ use them." Journal of Arboriculture 21(1): 1–6.

Epsky, N. D., W. L. Morrill, & R. W. Mankin. 2008. "Traps for Capturing Insects." Encyclopedia of Entomology (Ed. Capinera JL.), Springer, pp 3887–3901.

Hottel, B. A., R. W. Baldwin, R. M. Pereira, and phường G. Koehler. 2014. How to lớn make a bed bug interceptor trap out of common household items. ENY-2029. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Https://nhatroso.com/publication/in1022 (8 June 2022)

Hulcr, J. Và N. McCoy. 2013. Catching Beetles. How bởi I trap ambrosia and bark beetles? Use the Bambara Beetle Trap! Ambrosia Symbiosis. Http://www.ambrosiasymbiosis.org/ambrosia-beetles/catching-beetles/ (accessed 24 Sept. 2018)

Klostermeyer, L. E. 1985. "Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) traps: Comparison of commercial & homemade traps." Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(2): 454–459.

Lindgren, B. S. 1983. "A multiple funnel trap for scolytid beetles (Coleoptera)." The Canadian Entomologist, 115, 299–302.

Mizell, III, R. F., R. F. Mizell, & R. A. Mizell. 2002. "Trolling: A novel trapping method for Chrysops spp. (Diptera: Tabanidae)." Florida Entomologist, 85(2): 356–366.

Ogg, B. N.d. Do-It-Yourself Bed Bug Trap. University of Nebraska Lincoln Extension publication 338. Https://lancaster.unl.edu/pest/resources/338bedbugtrap.pdf (4 February 2015)

Squitter, J. M. 1998 (revised 2014). Deer flies, yellow flies & horse flies: Chrysops, Diachlorus, and Tabanus spp. (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae). EENY-028. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food và Agricultural Sciences. Https://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/livestock/deer_fly.htm (accessed September 2018).

Steiner, A., và C. L. Haeuser. 2010. "Recording insects by light-traps." Abc Taxa 8(2): 400–422.

University of Wisconsin-Extension. Gypsy Moth in Wisconsin, Making a burlap barrier band trap. Https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/spongymothinwisconsin/pest-management-2/making-a-burlap-barrier-band-trap/ (8 June 2022)

Weissling, T. J., R. M. Giblin-Davis, R. H. Scheffrahn, and N. M. Mendoza. 1992. "Trap for capturing và retaining Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults using Sabal palmetto as bait." Florida Entomologist, 212–221. Https://www.jstor.org/stable/3495623 (25 August 2015)