A french pastry, a 'thousand layers' is made from dough rolled into a square, buttered, and then folded into thirds to make three layers

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A laminated dough is made by rolling and folding butter or other fats, known as the beurrage, into the dough lớn create hundreds of thin layers of flaky pastry. Croissant and Danish pastries, typically served for breakfast, are examples of laminated yeast doughs, while puff pastry, also known as pâte feuilletée or mille feuille (meaning one thousand layers), is an unleavened type. During the baking process, the fats melt and gives off steam which puffs and separates the layers creating a buttery and flaky pastry. Croissants, a rolled, crescent-shaped pastry, also includes filled variations like pain au chocolat (chocolate), and amadine (almond). Savory versions are prepared with cheeses, spinach, or ham. There are three basic steps khổng lồ a laminated dough that include preparing the dough, enclosing it in butter or other fat, & rolling and folding the dough. Temperature is an important factor in this preparation because the fat must not be too warm (soft) or too cold (firm).


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Croissant Dough Ratio


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Puff Pastry Dough Ratio


Laminated doughs are enriched with the addition of milk, và in the case of a Danish dough the addition of eggs. These doughs are soft and sticky when mixed. The ratio of liquids is higher at a 2 to lớn 1 ratio of flour khổng lồ liquid.

Preparing the Dough

The base dough, known as the detrempe, varies depending on the type of pastry. For example, puff pastry dough is made up of flour, water, and salt; croissant dough is prepared with flour, sugar, yeast, salt, và milk; while Danish dough includes the same ingredients as a croissant dough but adds eggs khổng lồ the mix. An all-purpose flour can be used or a bread flour blended with a soft cake flour. The dough is mixed together until it becomes a sticky mass. Avoid over-mixing so the gluten doesn’t develop too fast or too soon.

Fermenting

Turn the dough out onto a sheet pan và shape into a rectangle. Store on a pan and allow it khổng lồ ferment. The dough is often chilled from 12-24 hours before it is rolled out.

Rolling the Dough – Locking in the Fat

The dough is rolled và shaped into a rectangle about three times as long as wide lớn a thickness of about ½ inch/12 mm. Sprinkle lightly with flour as needed and brush off excess once the desired kích cỡ has been achieved. Butter is the preferred fat for making croissant và Danish, but lard, margarine, & shortening are sometimes used for cost purposes. The temperature of the fat should be approximately 55°F/13°C. The fat is rolled between parchment into a thin rectangular shape that measures approximately ½ - 2/3 of the the desired size of the dough, depending on the desired fold.

Rolling and Folding the Dough

A professional dough sheeter is used for large scale production of laminated doughs. Smaller scale production is done by hand. The butter is placed on the dough and the dough is then folded to lock in the butter using either an envelope fold, single-, letter-, or book-fold.

An envelope-fold places the butter diagonally on vị trí cao nhất of the dough rolled out lớn a square. Each corner of the dough is brought to the center locking the butter inside the dough.