Breast cancer prevention: how to reduce your risk

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nhatroso.com prevention is kích hoạt taken to lower the chance of getting nhatroso.com. By preventing nhatroso.com, the number of new cases of nhatroso.com in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will reduce the burden of nhatroso.com & lower the number of deaths caused by nhatroso.com.

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nhatroso.com is not a single disease but a group of related diseases. Our genes, lifestyle, và the environment around us work together khổng lồ increase or decrease our risk of getting nhatroso.com. Each person’s nhatroso.com risk is made up of a combination of these factors.

Anything that increases your chance of developing nhatroso.com is called a nhatroso.com risk factor; anything that decreases your chance of developing nhatroso.com is called a nhatroso.com protective factor.

Some risk factors for nhatroso.com can be avoided, but many cannot. Forexample, both smoking & inheriting certain genes are risk factors for sometypes of nhatroso.com, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors for some types of nhatroso.com. Avoiding risk factors & increasing protective factors may lower your risk but it doesnot mean that you will not get nhatroso.com.

Different ways lớn prevent nhatroso.com are being studied, including:


Changing lifestyle or eating habits.Avoiding things known to cause nhatroso.com.

General Information About Breast nhatroso.com


Key Points


Breast nhatroso.com is a disease in which malignant (nhatroso.com) cells form in the tissues of the breast.Breast nhatroso.com is the second most common type of nhatroso.com in American women.

Breast nhatroso.com is a disease in which malignant (nhatroso.com) cells size in the tissues of the breast.

The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to đôi mươi sections called lobes, which have many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules over in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, & bulbs are linked by thin tubes called ducts.Enlarge

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Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple và areola are shown on the outside of the breast. The lymph nodes, lobes, lobules, ducts, & other parts of the inside of the breast are also shown.

Each breast also has blood vessels and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels carry an almost colorless, watery fluid called lymph. Lymph vessels carry lymph between lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped structures that filter lymph and store trắng blood cells that help fight infection và disease. Groups of lymph nodes are found near the breast in the axilla (under the arm), above the collarbone, and in the chest.

See the following PDQ summaries for more information about breast nhatroso.com:


Breast nhatroso.com is the second most common type of nhatroso.com in American women.

Women in the United States get breast nhatroso.com more than any other type of nhatroso.com except skin nhatroso.com. Breast nhatroso.com is second lớn lung nhatroso.com as a cause of nhatroso.com death in American women. Deaths from breast nhatroso.com have decreased slightly each year between 2013 và 2018. Breast nhatroso.com also occurs in men, but the number of new cases is small.


Breast nhatroso.com Prevention


Key Points


Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent nhatroso.com.The following are risk factors for breast nhatroso.com:Older ageA personal history of breast nhatroso.com or benign (nonnhatroso.com) breast diseaseInherited risk of breast nhatroso.comDense breast tissueReproductive history resulting in greater exposure khổng lồ estrogenTaking hormone therapy for symptoms of menopause Radiation therapy lớn the breast or chestObesityDrinking alcohol The following are protective factors for breast nhatroso.com:Reproductive history resulting in less exposure to lớn estrogenTaking estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, or aromatase inhibitors and inactivatorsEstrogen-only hooc môn therapy after hysterectomySelective estrogen receptor modulatorsAromatase inhibitors & inactivators Risk-reducing or prophylactic mastectomy Ovarian ablationGetting enough exerciseIt is not clear whether the following affect the risk of breast nhatroso.com:Hormonal contraceptivesChemicals in the environmentStudies have shown that some factors have little or no effect on the risk of breast nhatroso.com.nhatroso.com prevention clinical trials are used lớn study ways lớn prevent nhatroso.com.New ways to prevent breast nhatroso.com are being studied in clinical trials.

Avoiding risk factors & increasing protective factors may help prevent nhatroso.com.

Avoiding nhatroso.com risk factors may help prevent certain nhatroso.coms. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, & not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking và exercising may also help prevent some nhatroso.coms. Talk lớn your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of nhatroso.com.

NCI"s Breast nhatroso.com Risk Assessment Tool uses a woman"s risk factors to lớn estimate her risk for breast nhatroso.com during the next five years và up to age 90. This online tool is meant to lớn be used by a health care provider. For more information on breast nhatroso.com risk, hotline 1-800-4-nhatroso.com.

The following are risk factors for breast nhatroso.com:

Older age

Besides being a woman, older age is the main risk factor for breast nhatroso.com. The chance of getting breast nhatroso.com increases as a woman gets older.

A personal history of breast nhatroso.com or benign (nonnhatroso.com) breast disease

Women with any of the following have an increased risk of breast nhatroso.com:


Inherited risk of breast nhatroso.com

Women with a family history of breast nhatroso.com in a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) have an increased risk of breast nhatroso.com.

Women who have inherited changes in the BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes or in certain other genes have a higher risk of breast nhatroso.com. The risk of breast nhatroso.com caused by inherited ren changes depends on the type of gene mutation, family history of nhatroso.com, and other factors.

Dense breast tissue

Having breast tissue that is dense on a mammogram is a factor in breast nhatroso.com risk. The level of risk depends on how dense the breast tissue is. Women with very dense breasts have a higher risk of breast nhatroso.com than women with low breast density.

Increased breast density is often an inherited trait, but it may also occur in women who have not had children, have a first pregnancy late in life, take postmenopausal hormones, or drink alcohol.

Reproductive history resulting in greater exposure to estrogen

Estrogen is a hormone made by the body. It helps the body toàn thân develop and maintain female sex characteristics. Being exposed to estrogen over a long time may increase the risk of breast nhatroso.com. Estrogen levels are highest during the years a woman is menstruating.

The following reproductive factors increase the length of time a woman"s breast tissue is exposed to estrogen and may increase the risk of breast nhatroso.com:


Taking hormone therapy for symptoms of menopause

Hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, can be made into a pill form in a laboratory. Estrogen, progestin, or both may be given to replace the estrogen no longer made by the ovaries in postmenopausal women or women who have had their ovaries removed. This is called hooc môn replacement therapy (HRT) or hooc môn therapy (HT). Women who take estrogen only menopausal hooc môn therapy (MHT) have a higher risk of breast nhatroso.com. This is especially true for women who began estrogen only MHT close lớn the time of menopause. The risk of breast nhatroso.com does not decrease after women stop taking estrogen. Combination HT is estrogen combined with progestin. This type of MHT increases the risk of breast nhatroso.com. Studies show that when women stop taking estrogen combined with progestin, the risk of breast nhatroso.com decreases.

Radiation therapy to the breast or chest

Radiation therapy to the chest for the treatment of nhatroso.com increases the risk of breast nhatroso.com, starting 10 years after treatment. The risk of breast nhatroso.com depends on the dose of radiation & the age at which it is given. The risk is highest if radiation treatment was used during puberty, when breasts are forming.

Radiation therapy lớn treat nhatroso.com in one breast does not appear lớn increase the risk of nhatroso.com in the other breast.

For women who have inherited changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, exposure lớn radiation, such as that from chest x-rays, may further increase the risk of breast nhatroso.com, especially in women who were x-rayed before đôi mươi years of age.

Obesity

Obesity increasesthe risk of breast nhatroso.com, especially in postmenopausal women who have not used hooc môn replacement therapy.

Drinking alcohol

Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast nhatroso.com. The cấp độ of risk rises as the amount of alcohol consumed rises.

The following are protective factors for breast nhatroso.com:

Reproductive history resulting in less exposure lớn estrogen

A woman’s reproductive history can affect the length of time her breast tissue is exposed khổng lồ estrogen. Early onset of menstruation, late onset of menopause, later age at first pregnancy, & never having given birth have been linked lớn an increase in estrogen exposure và breast nhatroso.com risk. The following reproductive factors decrease the length of time a woman"s breast tissue is exposed to estrogen & may help prevent breast nhatroso.com:


Early pregnancy: Estrogen levels are lower during pregnancy. Women who have a full-term pregnancy before age 20 have a lower risk of breast nhatroso.com than women who have not had children or who give birth to lớn their first child after age 35.Breast-feeding: Estrogen levels may remain lower while a woman is breast-feeding. Women who breastfed have a lower risk of breast nhatroso.com than women who have had children but did not breastfeed.
Taking estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, or aromatase inhibitors & inactivatorsEstrogen-only hooc môn therapy after hysterectomy

Hormone therapy with estrogen only may be given to women who have had a hysterectomy. In these women, estrogen-only therapy after menopause may decrease the risk of breast nhatroso.com. There is an increased risk of stroke và heart and blood vessel disease in postmenopausal women who take estrogen after a hysterectomy.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators

Tamoxifen and raloxifene belong to lớn the family of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs act lượt thích estrogen on some tissues in the body, but block the effect of estrogen on other tissues.

Treatment with tamoxifen lowers the risk of estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast nhatroso.com & ductal carcinoma in situ in premenopausal and postmenopausal women at high risk. Tamoxifen is also used to treat metastatic breast nhatroso.com & to prevent nhatroso.com from recurring after surgery to remove breast tumors. Treatment with raloxifene also lowers the risk of breast nhatroso.com in postmenopausal women. With either drug, the reduced risk lasts for several years or longer after treatment is stopped. Lower rates of broken bones have been noted in patients taking raloxifene.

Taking tamoxifen increases the risk of hot flashes, endometrial nhatroso.com, stroke, cataracts, & blood clots (especially in the lungs and legs). The risk of having these problems increases markedly in women older than 50 years compared with younger women. Women younger than 50 years who have a high risk of breast nhatroso.com may benefit the most from taking tamoxifen. The risk of endometrial nhatroso.com lasts for 5 years after tamoxifen is stopped, but the risk of cataracts or blood clots does not last long.. Talk with your doctor about the risks và benefits of taking this drug.

Taking raloxifene increases the risk of blood clots in the lungs and legs but does not appear to increase the risk of endometrial nhatroso.com. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (decreased bone density), raloxifene lowers the risk of breast nhatroso.com for women who have a high or low risk of breast nhatroso.com. It is not known if raloxifene would have the same effect in women who vì not have osteoporosis. Talk with your doctor about the risks và benefits of taking this drug.

Other SERMs are being studied in clinical trials.

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Aromatase inhibitors and inactivators

Aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole) & inactivators (exemestane) lower the risk of recurrence và of new breast nhatroso.coms in women who have a history of breast nhatroso.com. Aromatase inhibitors also decrease the risk of breast nhatroso.com in women with the following conditions:


In women with an increased risk of breast nhatroso.com, taking aromatase inhibitors decreases the amount of estrogen made by the body. Before menopause, estrogen is made by the ovaries & other tissues in a woman"s body, including the brain, fat tissue, & skin. After menopause, the ovaries stop making estrogen, but the other tissues vì chưng not. Aromatase inhibitors block the action of an enzyme called aromatase, which is used lớn make all of the body"s estrogen. Aromatase inactivators stop the enzyme from working.

Possible harms from taking aromatase inhibitors include muscle & joint pain, osteoporosis, hot flashes, và feeling very tired.

Risk-reducing or prophylactic mastectomy

Some women who have a high risk of breast nhatroso.com may choose to lớn have a risk-reducing or prophylactic mastectomy (the removal of one or both breasts when there are no signs of nhatroso.com). After surgery, the risk of breast nhatroso.com becomes much lower in these women and most feel less anxious about their risk of breast nhatroso.com. Some women diagnosed with breast nhatroso.com may decide lớn have a healthy breast removed at the same time the breast with nhatroso.com is removed. This is called contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. However, it is very important to lớn have a nhatroso.com risk assessment and counseling about the different ways to lớn prevent breast nhatroso.com before making any decision about surgery.

Ovarian ablation

The ovaries make most of the estrogen that is made by the body. Treatments that stop or lower the amount of estrogen made by the ovaries include surgery lớn remove the ovaries, radiation therapy, or taking certain drugs. This is called ovarian ablation.

Premenopausal women who have a high risk of breast nhatroso.com due lớn certain changes in the BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes may choose lớn have a risk-reducing oophorectomy (the removal of both ovaries when there are no signs of nhatroso.com). This decreases the amount of estrogen made by the body toàn thân and lowers the risk of breast nhatroso.com. Risk-reducing oophorectomy also lowers the risk of breast nhatroso.com in average-risk premenopausal women and in women with an increased risk of breast nhatroso.com due khổng lồ radiation lớn the chest. However, it is very important to have a nhatroso.com risk assessment & counseling before making this decision. The sudden drop in estrogen levels may cause the symptoms of menopause khổng lồ begin. These include hot flashes, trouble sleeping, anxiety, & depression. Long-term effects include decreased sex drive, vaginal dryness, and decreased bone density.

Getting enough exercise

Women who take part in physical exercise have a lower risk of breast nhatroso.com.

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of breast nhatroso.com:

Hormonal contraceptives

Hormonal contraceptives contain estrogen or estrogen và progestin. Some studies have shown that women who are current or recent users of hormonal contraceptives may have a slight increase in breast nhatroso.com risk. Other studies have not shown an increased risk of breast nhatroso.com in women using hormonal contraceptives.

In one study, the risk of breast nhatroso.com slightly increased the longer a woman used hormonal contraceptives. Another study showed that the slight increase in breast nhatroso.com risk decreased over time when women stopped using hormonal contraceptives.

More studies are needed lớn know whether hormonal contraceptives affect a woman"s risk of breast nhatroso.com.

Chemicals in the environment

Scientists are studying whether exposure to lớn chemicals in the environment may increase a woman"s risk of breast nhatroso.com. Studies of this kind can be difficult to lớn conduct và interpret for many reasons:


It is hard khổng lồ determine the specific chemicals people have been exposed khổng lồ in the past. It can take decades after a potential exposure before nhatroso.com develops, and a person may not be aware of or remember the past exposure.Individual chemicals are likely to cause only a small increase in risk, và it can be difficult to lớn detect that increase in the context of the other factors that may influence a woman"s risk of breast nhatroso.com.

These reasons make it hard to lớn know which chemicals, if any, may increase the risk of breast nhatroso.com. More studies are needed khổng lồ know whether chemicals in the environment affect a woman"s risk of breast nhatroso.com. For more information, see Environmental Carcinogens và nhatroso.com Risk.

Studies have shown that some factors have little or no effect on the risk of breast nhatroso.com.

The following have little or no effect on the risk of breast nhatroso.com:


nhatroso.com prevention clinical trials are used to study ways lớn prevent nhatroso.com.

nhatroso.com prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to lower the risk of developing certain types of nhatroso.com. Some nhatroso.com prevention trials are conducted with healthy people who have not had nhatroso.com but who have an increased risk for nhatroso.com. Other prevention trials are conducted with people who have had nhatroso.com và are trying lớn prevent another nhatroso.com of the same type or khổng lồ lower their chance of developing a new type of nhatroso.com. Other trials are done with healthy volunteers who are not known to have any risk factors for nhatroso.com.

The purpose of some nhatroso.com prevention clinical trials is to lớn find out whether actions people take can prevent nhatroso.com. These may include exercising more or quitting smoking or taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements.

New ways khổng lồ prevent breast nhatroso.com are being studied in clinical trials.

Information about clinical trials supported by NCI can be found on NCI’s clinical trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website.


About PDQ

Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National nhatroso.com Institute"s (NCI"s) comprehensive nhatroso.com information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on nhatroso.com prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, và complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have nhatroso.com information that is accurate & up to lớn date and most versions are also available in Spanish.

PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent nhận xét of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.

Purpose of This Summary

This PDQ nhatroso.com information summary has current information about breast nhatroso.com prevention. It is meant to inform và help patients, families, & caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.

Reviewers & Updates

Editorial Boards write the PDQ nhatroso.com information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in nhatroso.com treatment và other specialties related to lớn nhatroso.com. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary ("Updated") is the date of the most recent change.

The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly và updated as needed, by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board.

Clinical Trial Information

A clinical trial is a study lớn answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies & what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order lớn find new and better ways khổng lồ help nhatroso.com patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment và how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want khổng lồ think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are xuất hiện only khổng lồ patients who have not started treatment.

Clinical trials can be found online at NCI"s website. For more information, điện thoại tư vấn the nhatroso.com Information Service (CIS), NCI"s contact center, at 1-800-4-nhatroso.com (1-800-422-6237).

Permission to Use This Summary

PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ nhatroso.com information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. However, a user would be allowed to lớn write a sentence such as “NCI’s PDQ nhatroso.com information summary about breast nhatroso.com prevention states the risks in the following way: .”

The best way khổng lồ cite this PDQ summary is:

PDQ® Screening and Prevention Editorial Board. PDQ Breast nhatroso.com Prevention. Bethesda, MD: National nhatroso.com Institute. Updated . Available at: https://www.nhatroso.com/types/breast/patient/breast-prevention-pdq. Accessed .

Images in this summary are used with permission of the author(s), artist, and/or quảng cáo online for use in the PDQ summaries only. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary & you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. It cannot be given by the National nhatroso.com Institute. Information about using the images in this summary, along with many other images related khổng lồ nhatroso.com can be found in Visuals Online. Visuals Online is a collection of more than 3,000 scientific images.

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The information in these summaries should not be used to make decisions about insurance reimbursement. More information on insurance coverage is available on nhatroso.com on the Managing nhatroso.com Care page.

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