Preventing Can Cancer Be Prevented? Cancer Risk

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· Sana Al Sukhun, MD, MSc; Gilberto Lopes, MD, MBA, FAMS; Mary Gospodarowicz, MD, FRCPC, FRCR(Hon); Ophira Ginsburg, MD, MSc, FRCPC; & Peter Paul Yu, MD, FACP, FASCO

The ASCO Educational Book is a collection of articles written by ASCO Annual Meeting speakers & oncology experts. Published annually, each volume highlights the most compelling research and developments across many different fields of nhatroso.com care.

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In collaboration with nhatroso.com, authors of the ASCO Educational Book have tailored their articles for patients và their loved ones so that they may be similarly informed of the latest science in oncology to lớn improve their care and outcomes.

Sana Al Sukhun, MD, MSc, is president of the Jordanian Oncology Society. Gilberto Lopes, MD, MBA, FAMS, is a medical oncologist và the medical director for International Programs at the Sylvester Comprehensive nhatroso.com Center. Mary Gospodarowicz, MD, FRCPC, FRCR(Hon), is the medical director at Princess Margaret nhatroso.com Centre. Ophira Ginsburg, MD, MSc, FRCPC, is a medical oncologist at the University of Toronto Women"s College Research Institute. Peter Paul Yu, MD, FACP, FASCO, is physician-in-chief of Hartford HealthCare.

nhatroso.com is one of the main causes of sickness và death in the world. In some countries, the number of people who die from nhatroso.com is high but starting to go down. The United States and other countries such as France, Japan, and nước australia are considered khổng lồ be high-income countries. These countries have developed economies & broad access lớn resources. In other countries, the number of people who die from nhatroso.com is rising. This rise is mostly seen in low- và middle-income countries (LMICs) that have limited resources available to treat nhatroso.com. In fact, 60% of the world’s new cases of nhatroso.com are diagnosed in LMICs.

How does preventing & treating nhatroso.com vary between high-income countries and LMICs?

Deaths from nhatroso.com have started khổng lồ decline in high-income countries. These countries have resources for wide-scale nhatroso.com prevention programs & modern treatment facilities. Prevention efforts include access lớn nhatroso.com screening programs và public health campaigns. These programs create awareness of nhatroso.com risk factors that people can change, including smoking, sun exposure, & obesity. High-income countries also have large nhatroso.com centers & hospitals, state-of-the-art research facilities, và access to nhatroso.com drugs.

LMIC is a way lớn describe a country that has a gross national income of less than $12,235 per person per year. Sometimes “LMIC” is used the same way as the phrase “developing country.” Governments in LMICs must make difficult decisions about where to lớn use money given their much more limited resources.

The rates of nhatroso.com diagnoses & deaths are rising in LMICs. For instance, 11% of the world’s population lives in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet countries in this region carry 25% of the “global burden of disease.” Global burden of disease is a measurement that combines years of life lost due lớn early death and years spent in poor health. Countries in this part of Africa ảo diệu only 1% of global health spending. In contrast, the Americas 3d 14% of the world population. They carry 10% of the global burden of disease và account for more than 50% of global health spending.

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In Africa, 29 of 52 countries have no radiation therapy centers. Radiation therapy is the most common way nhatroso.com is treated. These 29 countries are trang chủ to about 198 million people. By comparison, the United States has over 2,000 radiation therapy centers for its 320 million citizens.

Overall, high-income regions spend 5 to 10 times more on health care per person than LMICs. As a result, less than một nửa of people diagnosed with nhatroso.com in high-income countries die from their disease. But 66% of people with nhatroso.com in LMICs die from their disease.

Other challenges khổng lồ controlling nhatroso.com in LMICs include:

Cost of and access to nhatroso.com drugs

Small numbers of nhatroso.com specialists và other oncology professionals

Patients with more advanced disease at the time of diagnosis

nhatroso.com not seen as a priority public health issue

How can LMICs improve nhatroso.com treatment & prevention with such limited resources? 

There are many governments and international organizations working together lớn improve access to nhatroso.com prevention & treatment worldwide. But ,money by itself will not improve nhatroso.com care. There also needs lớn be easier access to surgery, radiation therapy, imaging, và pathology. The organization và structure of how nhatroso.com care is delivered also needs to lớn improve.

Resource-stratified guidelines can help control nhatroso.com in LMICs. Resource-stratified guidelines identify the treatment options that will provide the best possible outcomes for patients in areas with limited health resources. These guidelines also recommend ways for LMICs to lớn improve nhatroso.com care and advise doctors on how khổng lồ provide the best care possible with limited resources.

What are some examples of resource-stratified guidelines?

Many organizations have built resource-stratified guidelines on a leveled system. For example, the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) has recommendations on breast nhatroso.com treatment based on a 4-level system. The recommendations below show how khổng lồ ensure that people with breast nhatroso.com who live in areas with limited resources get the best possible care.

BHGI’s leveled system looks like this:

Basic level: chip core services that are necessary (e.g., mastectomy).

Maximum level: Services that might be used in high-income countries or are recommended in nhatroso.com guidelines that vì not tài khoản for resource constraints. These services cost more & are usually not within reach for places with limited resources.

Other organizations with resource-stratified guidelines include:

There is much to lớn be done to help LMICs improve access khổng lồ nhatroso.com treatment và prevention. Improving outcomes does not always mean using the most recently approved drugs or procedures, but the most valuable tool for the option. Resource-stratified guidelines are a start to lớn helping patient receive better access and treatment in LMICs.