Treatment

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Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (nhatroso.com) cells khung in melanocytes (cells that màu sắc the skin). There are different types of nhatroso.com that start in the skin.Melanoma can occur anywhere on the skin. Unusual moles, exposure to lớn sunlight, và health history can affect the risk of melanoma.Signs of melanoma include a change in the way a mole or pigmented area looks. Tests that examine the skin are used to lớn diagnose melanoma.Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

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Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (nhatroso.com) cells size in melanocytes (cells that color the skin).

The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control toàn thân temperature & stores water, fat, & vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) & the dermis (lower or inner layer). Skin nhatroso.com begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:


From 2005 lớn 2018, the number of new cases of melanoma has decreased in people younger than 50 years & stayed about the same in people aged 50 years và older. Melanoma is most common in adults, but it is sometimes found in children và adolescents. For more information, see Childhood Melanoma Treatment.

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Anatomy of the skin, showing the epidermis, dermis, và subcutaneous tissue. Melanocytes are in the layer of basal cells at the deepest part of the epidermis.

There are different types of nhatroso.com that start in the skin.

There are two main forms of skin nhatroso.com: melanoma & nonmelanoma.

Melanoma is a rare size of skin nhatroso.com. It is more likely lớn invade nearby tissues và spread lớn other parts of the body than other types of skin nhatroso.com. When melanoma starts in the skin, it is called cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma may also occur in mucous membranes (thin, moist layers of tissue that cover surfaces such as the lips). This PDQ summary is about cutaneous (skin) melanoma & melanoma that affects the mucous membranes.

The most common types of skin nhatroso.com are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. They are nonmelanoma skin nhatroso.coms. Nonmelanoma skin nhatroso.coms rarely spread khổng lồ other parts of the body. For more information, see Skin nhatroso.com Treatment.

Melanoma can occur anywhere on the skin.

In men, melanoma is often found on the trunk (the area from the shoulders lớn the hips) or the head và neck. In women, melanoma forms most often on the arms và legs.

When melanoma occurs in the eye, it is called intraocular or ocular melanoma. For more information, see Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment.

Unusual moles, exposure to lớn sunlight, & health history can affect the risk of melanoma.

Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get nhatroso.com; not having risk factors doesn"t mean that you will not get nhatroso.com. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk.

Risk factors for melanoma include the following:


Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not tan, or tans poorly. Xanh or green or other light-colored eyes.Red or blond hair.
Being exposed to lớn natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds).Having a history of many blistering sunburns, especially as a child or teenager.Being White.

Being white or having a fair complexion increases the risk of melanoma, but anyone can have melanoma, including people with dark skin.

See the following PDQ summaries for more information on risk factors for melanoma:


Signs of melanoma include a change in the way a mole or pigmented area looks.

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by melanoma or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:


For pictures và descriptions of common moles và melanoma, see Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma.

Tests that examine the skin are used to diagnose melanoma.

If a mole or pigmented area of the skin changes or looks abnormal, the following tests & procedures can help find and diagnose melanoma:


Biopsy: A procedure to remove the abnormal tissue & a small amount of normal tissue around it. A pathologist looks at the tissue under a microscope to kiểm tra for nhatroso.com cells. It can be hard khổng lồ tell the difference between a colored mole and an early melanoma lesion. Patients may want lớn have the sample of tissue checked by a second pathologist. If the abnormal mole or lesion is nhatroso.com, the sample of tissue may also be tested for certain gene changes.

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There are four main types of skin biopsies. The type of biopsy done depends on where the abnormal area formed và the kích cỡ of the area.


Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis và treatment options depend on the following:


How quickly the nhatroso.com cells are dividing.The number of places nhatroso.com has spread khổng lồ in the body.The patient’s age & general health.
After melanoma has been diagnosed, tests may be done to lớn find out if nhatroso.com cells have spread within the skin or khổng lồ other parts of the body.There are three ways that nhatroso.com spreads in the body.nhatroso.com may spread from where it began khổng lồ other parts of the body.The stage of melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumor, whether nhatroso.com has spread khổng lồ lymph nodes or other parts of the body, and other factors. The following stages are used for melanoma:Stage 0 (Melanoma in Situ) Stage IStage II Stage III Stage IV Melanoma can recur(come back) after it has been treated.

After melanoma has been diagnosed, tests may be done khổng lồ find out if nhatroso.com cells have spread within the skin or to other parts of the body.

The process used to lớn find out whether nhatroso.com has spread within the skin or lớn other parts of the body toàn thân is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important lớn know the stage in order to lớn plan treatment.

For melanoma that is not likely lớn spread to other parts of the body toàn thân or recur, more tests may not be needed. For melanoma that is likely lớn spread lớn other parts of the body or recur, the following tests & procedures may be done after surgery khổng lồ remove the melanoma:


The results of these tests are viewed together with the results of the tumor biopsy lớn find out the stage of the melanoma.

There are three ways that nhatroso.com spreads in the body.

nhatroso.com can spread through tissue, the lymph system, & the blood:


nhatroso.com may spread from where it began lớn other parts of the body.

When nhatroso.com spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. nhatroso.com cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) & travel through the lymph system or blood.


Blood. The nhatroso.com gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, và forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

The metastatic tumor is the same type of nhatroso.com as the primary tumor. For example, if melanoma spreads to lớn the lung, the nhatroso.com cells in the lung are actually melanoma cells. The disease is metastatic melanoma, not lung nhatroso.com.


Many nhatroso.com deaths are caused when nhatroso.com moves from the original tumor and spreads to other tissues & organs. This is called metastatic nhatroso.com. This animation shows how nhatroso.com cells travel from the place in the body where they first formed lớn other parts of the body.

The stage of melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumor, whether nhatroso.com has spread to lớn lymph nodes or other parts of the body, và other factors.

To find out the stage of melanoma, the tumor is completely removed and nearby lymph nodes are checked for signs of nhatroso.com. The stage of the nhatroso.com is used khổng lồ determine which treatment is best. Kiểm tra with your doctor to lớn find out which stage of nhatroso.com you have.

The stage of melanoma depends on the following:


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The following stages are used for melanoma:

Stage 0 (Melanoma in Situ)

In stage 0, abnormal melanocytes are found in the epidermis. These abnormal melanocytes may become nhatroso.com and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called melanoma in situ.Enlarge

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Stage 0 melanoma. Abnormal melanocytes are found in the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). These abnormal melanocytes may become nhatroso.com and spread into nearby normal tissue.

Stage I

In stage I, nhatroso.com has formed. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB.

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Millimeters (mm). A sharp pencil point is about 1 mm, a new crayon point is about 2 mm, and a new pencil eraser is about 5 mm.