What Is Liver Cancer Treatment Advances

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There are different types of treatment for patients with liver nhatroso.com. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), và some are being tested in clinical trials.

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Surveillance

Surveillance is used for lesions smaller than 1 centimeter found during screening. Follow-up every 3 months is common. Surveillance is closely watching a patient’s condition but not giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse. During active surveillance, certain exams & tests are done on a regular schedule.

Surgery

A partial hepatectomy (surgery to remove the part of the liver where nhatroso.com is found) may be done. A wedge of tissue, an entire lobe, or a larger part of the liver, along with some of the healthy tissue around it is removed. The remaining liver tissue takes over the functions of the liver and may regrow.

Liver transplant

In a liver transplant, the entire liver is removed & replaced with a healthy donated liver. A liver transplant may be done when the disease is in the liver only và a donated liver can be found. If the patient has lớn wait for a donated liver, other treatment is given as needed.

Ablation therapy

Ablation therapy removes or destroys tissue. Different types of ablation therapy are used for liver nhatroso.com:


Microwave therapy: The tumor is exposed khổng lồ high temperatures created by microwaves. This can damage and kill nhatroso.com cells or make them more sensitive khổng lồ the effects of radiation và certain antinhatroso.com drugs.

Embolization therapy

Embolization therapy is used for patients who cannot have surgery to remove the tumor or ablation therapy and whose tumor has not spread outside the liver. Embolization therapy is the use of substances to lớn block or decrease the flow of blood through the hepatic artery lớn the tumor. When the tumor does not get the oxygen and nutrients it needs, it will not continue khổng lồ grow.

The liver receives blood from the hepatic portal vein & the hepatic artery. Blood that comes into the liver from the hepatic portal vein usually goes lớn the healthy liver tissue. Blood that comes from the hepatic artery usually goes to lớn the tumor. When the hepatic artery is blocked during embolization therapy, the healthy liver tissue continues lớn receive blood from the hepatic portal vein.

There are two main types of embolization therapy:


Transarterial embolization (TAE): A small incision (cut) is made in the inner thigh and a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted and threaded up into the hepatic artery. Once the catheter is in place, a substance that blocks the hepatic artery and stops blood flow khổng lồ the tumor is injected.Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE): This procedure is lượt thích TAE except an antinhatroso.com drug is also given. The procedure can be done by attaching the antinhatroso.com drug to small beads that are injected into the hepatic artery or by injecting the antinhatroso.com drug through the catheter into the hepatic artery and then injecting the substance lớn block the hepatic artery. Most of the antinhatroso.com drug is trapped near the tumor & only a small amount of the drug reaches other parts of the body. This type of treatment is also called chemoembolization.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances lớn identify & attack specific nhatroso.com cells. Targeted therapies usually cause less harm lớn normal cells than chemotherapy or radiation therapy do. Targeted therapies used lớn treat advanced liver nhatroso.com include the following:


To learn more about targeted therapy & its side effects, see Targeted nhatroso.com Therapies.

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Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the patient"s immune system lớn fight nhatroso.com. Substances made by the toàn thân or made in a laboratory are used to lớn boost, direct, or restore the body"s natural defenses against nhatroso.com.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors that may be used lớn treat liver nhatroso.com include the following:


To learn more about immunotherapy and its side effects, see Immunotherapy to Treat nhatroso.com & Immunotherapy Side Effects.

Radiation therapy

External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body toàn thân to send high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation toward the area of the body with nhatroso.com. This kills nhatroso.com cells or keeps them from growing. Certain ways of giving external radiation therapy can help keep radiation from damaging nearby healthy tissue:


Conformal radiation therapy: Conformal radiation therapy uses a computer khổng lồ make a 3-dimensional, or 3-D, picture of the tumor & shapes the radiation beams lớn fit the tumor. This allows a high dose of radiation to reach the tumor and causes less damage to lớn nearby healthy tissue.Stereotactic body radiation therapy: Stereotactic toàn thân radiation therapy uses special equipment to place the patient in the same position for each radiation treatment. Once a day for several days, a radiation machine aims a larger than usual dose of radiation directly at the tumor. By having the patient in the same position for each treatment, there is less damage lớn nearby healthy tissue. This procedure is also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.Proton beam radiation therapy: Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of high-energy, external radiation therapy that uses streams of protons (tiny particles with a positive charge) to kill tumor cells. This type of treatment can lower the amount of radiation damage khổng lồ healthy tissue near a tumor.

To learn more about radiation therapy & its side effects, see Radiation Therapy to lớn Treat nhatroso.com & Radiation Therapy Side Effects.

Clinical trials

A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with nhatroso.com. For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported nhatroso.com clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can tìm kiếm for trials based on the type of nhatroso.com, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website.

To learn more about clinical trials, see Clinical Trials Information for Patients and Caregivers.


surveillance for lesions smaller than 1 centimetertotal hepatectomy transplantpartial hepatectomyablation of the tumor using one of the following methods:
radiofrequency ablationmicrowave therapypercutaneous ethanol injectioncryoablation

Treatment of locally advanced or metastatic liver nhatroso.com


Treatment of locally advanced or metastatic liver nhatroso.com may include the following:


embolization therapy using transarterial embolization (TAE) or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)targeted therapy with sorafenib, lenvatinib, regorafenib, cabozantinib, bevacizumab, or ramucirumabimmune checkpoint inhibitor therapy with pembrolizumab, nivolumab with ipilimumab, or atezolizumab with the targeted therapy bevacizumabradiation therapy